Archive | September 2016

How to Configure RJ45 Pinout

Ethernet cable, as one of the most popular types of networking cable, is mainly utilized to interconnect two wired network devices in the home or the office. Cat 5/cat6, UTP/STP cables are some of this cable type that connects all devices to get a network up and running smoothly. Unlike the fiber jumper, this Ethernet copper cable is usually terminated with a 8P8C modular connector, which is often called RJ45 (Registered Jack). The way the RJ45 connector wired to Cat 5, 5e and 6 cables differs depending upon the type of cable required.

It is known to all that, inside the Ethernet cable, there are eight color coded wires twisted into 4 pairs of wires, which poses difficulty in effectively wiring them. So how to terminated RJ45 connectors at the end of the network cable? In fact, there are three wiring standards available on the market—straight-through cables, crossover cables and rollover cables. In order to have a better understanding of the RJ45 pinout, this article will provide some basic information about them.

Different Wiring Standards

Before starting with the discussion of cable pinout for modular jack, we often get questions as to the difference in straight-through, crossover, and rollover wiring of cables and the intended use for each type of cable. These terms describe the way the cables are wired (which pin on one end is connected to which pin on the other end). The following part shows the exact pinout schemes of the three cables.

  • Straight-Through Cables

For this type of cable, the wiring of both ends is the same, in other words Pin 1 connector A goes to Pin 1 on connector B, Pin 2 to Pin 2 etc. Straight-through wired cables are most commonly used to connect a host to client. When we talk about cat 5e patch cables, the straight-through wired cat5e patch cable is used to connect computers, printers and other network client devices to the router switch or hub. Straight-through cable can be either terminated with T568A or T568B standard, just as you can see in the below image.

straight-through-and-crossover-cable

  • Crossover Cables

Crossover cables are very much like Straight-Through cables with the exception that TX and RX lines are crossed (they are at opposite positions on either end of the cable), that’s it, Pin 1 on connector A goes to Pin 3 on connector B. Pin 2 on connector A goes to Pin 6 on connector B, etc. Crossover cable are usually terminated with one end with T568A and the other end with T568B standard This means that two similar devices can communicate with each other, so this is how to connect two computers or two switches or hubs to each other. Crossover cables are most commonly used to connect two hosts directly. Examples would be connecting a computer directly to another computer, connecting a switch directly to another switch, or connecting a router to a router.

  • Rollover Cables

A rollover cable as the names implies, refers to the one where the pinouts are reversed. Pin 1 becomes pin 8 and pin 2 becomes pin 7. This type of cable is not used in computer networks, except in very special applications. Rollover cables, sometimes referred to as host cables are most commonly used to connect to a devices console port to make programming changes to the device. Unlike crossover and straight-wired cables, rollover cables are not intended to carry data but instead create an interface with the device.

Cabling Standards—T568A and T568B

Ethernet cables are twisted into 4 wires coded with different colors. The four colors used on Cat 5 and 6 cables are green, orange, blue and brown. One wire in each pair has a solid color and the other has a white stripe added. The telecommunication industry has two standards for cable RJ45 pinouts: T568A and T568B. These standards determine how each of the four pairs of colored wires is connected on the RJ45 connector.

rj45-pinout-t568a-and-t568b

When visually comparing the T568A and T568B wiring configurations side-by-side, you will see that that the pin positions for the green and orange pairs are swapped. On T586A cables, pin 1 is white-green and pin 2 green, whereas on T586B cables, pin 1 is white-orange and pin 2 orange. The difference continues in that pins 3 and 6 are used for the other color. With both standards, the blue pair is always on pins 4 and 5 and the brown pair on pins 7 and 8. T586B is the most common, although the government often uses T586A. The choice is irrelevant provided all components follow the same standard.

How to Configure Ethernet Cable for T568A or T568B

T568A and T568B standards were recognized by ANSI, TIA and EIA. The first is the T568A wiring standard and the second is T568B. Nowadays T568B has surpassed 568A and is seen as the default wiring scheme for twisted pair structured cabling. But this cannot be the unique standard to determine which one is suitable than the other. In fact, whether to choose one standard over the other really depends upon the configuration of the existing network you are working on or if you are building a network from the ground up. The benefit to using the more popular T568B wiring scheme is that it is backward compatible to USOC wiring schemes, but it also accommodates current and future demands on the network.

If you are working on an existing network, it is important to continue with the existing wiring scheme for straight through cables. If this is unknown, this can be determined by testing the cables for continuity. Mixing the two schemes will prevent data signals from transferring simply because the individual colored and striped wires will not be matching up when you connect the plugs and jacks. Or in some circumstance, it may be necessary to mix the two configurations when previously T568A-wired components will be connected to T568B components. In this case, you would want to create a crossover cable by terminating one end with a T568A terminated plug and the other with a T568B plug to prevent data loss.

Conclusion

The RJ45 pinout standards specify two wiring schemes on how to configure RJ45 Ethernet cable. While the T568A and T568B wiring standards are very similar, the T568B scheme is more commonly used for many data cable applications. Note that whether to use T568A or T568B really depends on the existing wiring, jacks or personal preference, and you should take consistency into account as well. FS.COM provides a full range of optical devices, including the Ethernet cables, fiber optic cables, optical transceivers, DAC/AOC and so on. Custom fiber patch cords are also offered. All of our products are well-tested before shipping, if you want to know more, please send your request to us.

Do You Know About the Cable Clip?

Fiber optic cables are almost ubiquitous in this highly technological day and age. In your household network, you may find cables running through televisions sets, DVD players, desktop computers, speakers, and video projectors. Optical cables are the must-have components in insuring the smooth network connectivity. What’s more, with the increasing requirement of the network speed, more and more cables will be deployed. Therefore, cables must be kept organized and out of the way to prevent interruptions and obstructions. One of the best method to keep numerous and lengthy cables in order, in any space, is to utilize a cable clip. This article will provide some information about what you need to know about the cable clip and its function.

Overview of Fiber Optic Cable

Before we come to the introduction of the cable clip, let’s firstly have a review of the fiber optic cable. Fiber optic cable may resemble the copper wire cable, but what lies beneath the sheath is different. An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more fibers that are individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Cables have countless applications in business and industrial settings based on different type of cables. In work environments, they can be found snaking behind computers, telephones, printer stations, and other electronic devices. And in industrial sites, cables are necessary for a wide range of markets: electrical, factory automation, natural gas production, steel, refining and petrochemical, pulp and paper, and wind, power and solar generation.

fiber-optics-fs-com

The primary role of the fiber optic cable is to enable functions like communication, signal transmission, and instrumentation and control, and are essential components of transmission devices, multi-point and single-ended networks, and converters and repeaters. In terms of cable installation, cables should never be allowed to hang freely for long distances or to press against edges. There are some guidelines that installers must keep in mind. In order to well organized the high-density cables, some cable management elements are needed. FS.COM custom fiber patch cords are made to meet your special requirement just as the image shows above. The following part will go on to talk about one of the items used in cable management—cable clip.

What Is the Cable Clip?

A cable clip is a device that manages wires and cables and secures them to a fixed point on a surface, like a wall, ceiling or floor. A wide range of cable clips is available to control cables of all sizes and shapes, in almost any number, in both home and industrial applications. The following shows different size of the cable clips.

cable-clip

How Does It Work?

Generally, a cable clip contains two important components: one mechanism for gathering cables together securely, and another provision for holding the entire cable clip (along with the gathered cables) fast against a single spot on a surface so that the entire bundle stays in place. Some manufacturers design products so that these two mechanisms come separately, although combining them provides better utility and a number of advantages.

One particular type of cable clip is designed as a single piece of material (like plastic) to hold wires and cables on one end, while a hole is provided on another end through which a nail can be used to secure the clip to a wall or other surface. However, this type of cable clip may not be suitable for surfaces that should not be damaged by hammering a nail into them.

In such cases (especially for instances wherein securing the cables together is only meant to be temporary), another type of cable clip may be more appropriate — one that comes with an attached adhesive area that can be easily stuck to the surface without creating a hole or damaging it in another way. Once the cables can be let down, the cable clip can be simply removed.

Conclusion

To sum up, cable management can have a significant impact on the management in a data center or any network infrastructure. Keeping network cables and optical devices neatly managed has been more and more critical for the effective management as density and application complexity have proliferated. The cable clips are indispensable to ensure the cables well managed and laid in order. FS.COM offers a full range of cable management accessories including fiber splice tray, cable manager & wire duct, cable management rings, cable ties, wire loom and cable wire markers, cable lacing bars and so on. All of our products, especially the fiber optic cables (like LC to SC patch cord and LC to LC patch cord) are warmly welcomed by customers. If you want to know more about our products, you can send your request to us.

Understanding Pre-Terminated Cabling and Network Deployment

Data center nowadays are migrating to high-bandwidth, high-density network infrastructure. This increased network speeds have tighter link budget requirements that can be challenging to achieve with field terminations. Pre-terminated cabling includes a variety of trunk cables, array cables, and plug and play cassettes that gives data center managers options that suit specific needs. Besides this, there are several reasons to consider pre-terminated optical fiber in data center solution. The following image shows the pre-terminated UTP cassettes.

pre-terminated-utp-cassette

No Need to Test the Network Performance

With pre-terminated cable assemblies, transmission testing of assemblies is performed by the manufacturer before shipment, and test reports are included with the assemblies. This leaves only continuity testing for copper and 10% insertion loss and continuity testing for fiber, which reduces the time spent testing on-site.

Reduce Downtime

With pre-terminated solutions, data center managers can make changes quickly based on network growth, business decisions, or shifting requirements. In disaster recovery situations that call for fast, temporary data communications set-up, pre-terminated cabling can minimize business downtime and establish communications quickly. It can also be disassembled quickly when the situation is resolved. The components are reusable for more efficient moves, adds, and changes (MACs).

Fast and Simple Deployment

Field termination is the most time-consuming, labor-intensive part of the cable installation process. Once pre-terminated cabling is delivered, it can be unpacked, readied for deployment, and connected quickly. In many cases pre-terminated cabling can cut installation time by up to 80% over field terminations.

Additionally, precision factory-termination processes take place in a clean, well-lit environment, unlike termination in uncontrolled field conditions. This increases the likelihood of clean and uncontaminated optical fiber ports, enables lower loss budgets, and provides overall better electrical transmission. Factory terminations are also guaranteed under warranty, which offer data center managers peace of mind.

Easy Maintenance

Pre-terminated solutions allow for quick clean-up due to minimal leftover materials and scrap. Also, because there is less waste and material to clean up, pre-terminated solutions also help meet green design, waste reduction, and material reuse goals. Additionally, pre-terminated solutions provide an easy way for network managers to proceed a routine check.

If you are making up your mind to deploy a pre-terminated system, one thing you shouldn’t miss is that the planning process typically requires more time upfront and more detailed analysis to determine specific cabling and termination routes along the cable trays and within the cabinets. Once the detailed plan is formulated and approved, the system’s cabling and connectivity components are manufactured and tested at the factory to ensure they meet all applicable industry standards prior to delivery. The next part will go on to talk about the how to select the suitable pre-terminated solution.

pre-terminated-cabling-solution

How to Choose the Pre-terminated Cable

Pre-terminated cabling solutions are ideally suited for data center environments where the cable routes are well defined and where the time for deployment, ease of installation, network reliability and manageability are paramount. When selecting pre-terminated cable assemblies, be sure to use a reliable provider that can offer services such as guaranteed cabling performance, design assistance, certified contractor training, and the ability to support large quantities of assemblies in the required delivery window. Make sure the pre-terminated copper or optical fiber purchased through a manufacturer uses components that have been tested and verified by a third party to exceed TIA and IEEE standards. The manufacturer should also provide 100% testing in a quality-controlled environment before the cabling is shipped out to the worksite.

Conclusion

Pre-terminated cables are the plug-and-play solution for links between switches, servers, and patch panels in the data center. As the computing environments and business needs of organizations differ widely, not every enterprise will find the benefits of pre-terminated systems outweigh the investment. Field-terminated copper and fiber cabling and connectivity systems are generally less costly to purchase in terms of the various components. Just to find a suitable solution system for your own network. Providing reliable quality, advanced testing system and favorable price, progress of FS.COM has never stopped. We offer a variety of pre-terminated optics including the breakout patch cable, pre-terminated trunk cable and adapter panels. Fiber optic cables like SC fiber patch cable and LC to LC patch cord are also needed. If you have any requirement of our products, please send your request to us.

Why Choose to Use a Managed Ethernet Switch?

A switch is a telecommunication device that joins multiple devices within one Local Area Network (LAN). Choosing the proper Ethernet switch for the right application can be a confusing task as there are many options to be considered such as auto-negotiation features, managed or unmanaged, environment, future proofing, etc. Whether to use managed or unmanaged Ethernet switches for your data center solution is one of the key questions that users frequently put forward. To solve this out, today’s article will cover the difference between managed switch and unmanaged switch, as well as the benefits of using managed switches.

What Does a Switch Do?

Before we come to the differences between managed and unmanaged switch, we should first know exactly what an Ethernet switch is. As noted before, switch is a device mainly found in telecom field to interconnect Ethernet equipment. A switch receives a message from any device connected to it and then transmits the message only to the device for which the message is targeted. Additionally, the Ethernet switch is intelligent and efficient and can determine the target port for each frame. Managed and unmanaged switches are the two common switch types. The following chart shows the major differences between these two switches.

unmanged-ans-managed-switch

The major difference between them lies in the fact that managed switch can be configured and it can prioritize LAN traffic to make sure the most important information can get through. An unmanaged switch on the other hand behaves like a plug and play device. It cannot be configured and simply allows the devices to communicate with one another. Obviously the fixed configuration of unmanaged switches limits the functionality of a network to that of the Ethernet devices connected. That is the reasons why people would pay for more money to have a managed switch. Next part will go on to provide a clearer illustration to the benefits of using a managed switch.

Why to Use a Managed Switch?

Managed switch give you better control over LAN traffic and offer other advanced features to control the traffic.

  • Redundancy

It refers to a back up data path to network traffic to safeguard a network in case a connection or cable fails. Managed switches incorporate Spanning Tree Protocol or STP to provide path redundancy in the network. This provides redundant paths but prevents loops that are created by multiple active paths between switches.

  • Remote Management

Mission critical networks demand remote configuration, monitoring/traps, reboot, and re-imaging of OS. Managed switch use protocols such as SNMP or Simple Network Management Protocol for monitoring the devices on the network to realize remote management. The SNMP protocol allows you to relay network configuration data to network engineers and allow them to set configuration parameters remotely. This makes wire management and optimization functions to be performed from a central or remote location, which will make network management easier and more straightforward and can reduce troubleshooting time and increase uptime.

  • Security and Resilience

Limiting network access to trusted devices prevents users from setting up unauthorized sub-networks. Managed switches enable complete control of data, bandwidth and traffic control over the Ethernet network, allowing you to set IP/port restrictions on actual physical ports. This means you can setup additional firewall rules directly in the switch. In all, managed switches support protocols which allow operators to restrict and control port access, like the 802.1x port based network access control. In addition, managed switches support protocols to limit management plane access via user authentication such as RADIUS, LDAP and others.

  • Support Multiple VLAN Configuration

Managed switch can use the VLAN configuration to logically group devices as per the working departments and to isolate traffic between these groups. This segmentation and isolation of network traffic help to reduce unnecessary traffic. For instance, managed switches allow for the creation of multiple VLANs where 8-port switch functionally can become two 4-port switches (where ports 1-4 are VLAN 1 and ports 4-8 are VLAN 2). It’s possible to allow VLANs to talk to the router/NAT, while preventing them from talking to each other. You could lock down the wireless VLAN to only allow port 80/443 or similar so they can browse the web but nothing else.

  • QoS (The Quality of Service)

The managed switches are able to prioritize one type of traffic over another allowing more bandwidth to be allocated through the network by assigning a higher priority to the critical traffic. This helps to improve network performance and helps in better transmission of delay-sensitive data such as real-time voice.

When and Where to Use Managed Switches?

Managed switches possess all the above features, which are ideal for network applications with fast response time requirements at companies that need to allowing engineers to reach optimal reliable network performance and maintenance by managing and troubleshooting networks remotely and securely. These switches are robust and appropriate for Industrial Network settings, made to stand up to harsh applications like extreme temperatures (-40 up to +75), vibrations and shocks while contributing to a cost-effective, reliable, and secure network. Managed switches should be used on any network backbone switch so that segments of network traffic can be monitored and controlled such as: security/surveillance, defense/government applications, HVAC, water/waste water, utilities and oil/gas.

Conclusion

Managed switches are usually costlier than unmanaged switches, but it does offer many benefits for network control and configuration. This article has discussed a number of features found on managed switch, and introduce the major distinctions between unmanaged and managed switch. In the end, managed switches are supposed to be used on any network backbone switch so that segments of network traffic can be monitored and controlled, while unmanaged switches are the plug and play devices that are suitable for companies that has no advanced needs and limited budget.